• How Speech/Language Skills can Affect Academic Performance


    Articulation                             Required for verbal expression in all curricular areas. 

                                                    Multiple articulation errors can indicate a disordered

                                                    Phonological system which could impact spelling and

                                                    reading.  Noticeable differences in speech production

                                                    can have a negative impact on self-confidence, peer

                                                    relationships, and vocational/career opportunities.


    Oral/Motor Skills                   Disorders in muscle tone, movement, and sensation of

                                                    the articulators may affect speech production, chewing,

                                                    drinking, swallowing, and the ability to manage saliva.


    Voice                                      Noticeable differences in vocal pitch, quality, and volume

                                                    can affect self-confidence and peer relationships.  Poor

                                                    vocal hygiene can lead to lasting physical changes of the

                                                    vocal folds.  Voice differences can be a symptom of

                                                    medical concerns requiring evaluation by a Physician.


    Fluency                                   Fluency/Stuttering can inhibit classroom participation and

                                                    affect peer relationships.  Vocational/career choice may be

                                                    limited, despite the individual’s competency levels in

                                                    non-speech areas. 


    Auditory Processing               Deficits in these skills can affect performance in all

      Attention                               academic areas that involve auditory reception and

      Memory                                 processing of curricular material and following oral

      Discrimination                      directions.  Spelling and reading can be affected by

      Sequencing                            difficulty analyzing and applying the phonemic code.

      Sound Blending



    Semantics                               All areas of communication (listening, speaking, reading

      Vocabulary                           writing) are affected by weakness in semantic skills,

      Definitions                             thereby impacting on all areas of the curriculum.


      Multiple Meanings






    Grammar/Syntax                    The knowledge and application of grammatical rules is

      Parts of Speech                     essential for both spoken and written language.  Deficits

      Sentence types                       impact on the ability to comprehend, analyze, and produce

      Sentence construction           language effectively.


    Pragmatics                              Deficits in these skills affect listening, problem solving,

      Organizational skills             reading comprehension, study skills, oral and written

      Sequencing information        language, and social interactions.

      Critical thinking                   

      Making judgments & inferences

      Social appropriateness of interactions

      Nonverbal communication